Old and New Covenants

TEXT: Heb 13:20-21 — Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant Heb 13:21 Make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is wellpleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

Introduction: What is a Covenant?

It is important to be able to answer, "how did we get here?" If we are to properly embrace the New Testament or the New Covenant.

convenant: a compact; confederacy; league; divine-human partnership

Made By God

Job 23:13 — But he is in one mind, and who can turn him? and what his soul desireth, even that he doeth.

There are at least 5, but they can also be considered as one developing plan. (Like a flower comming to blossom.) The particulars of each covenant are binding only to those between it was made. That is details made specifically with Israel cannot just be applied universally to all mankind. And yet because the "God" side of the equation is constant, each covenant progressively reveals to us the nature and intentions of God.

Relational in Nature

These God-made covenants are different from a contract as they are relational and personal in the same way a business contract to partner in business is different from a marriage covenant.

These covenants are made up of various promises and blessings on God's part, and commanded obligations or conditions on man's part accompanied by various signs and or ceremonies.

We can consider these covenants as defintions to the nature of mans relationship to God and God's relationship to man. We see that man will forget, break and turn away from his end of the arrangement over and over and yet we will see by contrast the persistance and faithfulness of God. God's actions work faithfully toward redemption and reconcilliation of the broken relationship with man.

Numbers 14:22 — Because all those men which have seen my glory, and my miracles, which I did in Egypt and in the wilderness, and have tempted me now these ten times, and have not hearkened to my voice;

James 4:4 — Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God.

Shared Purpose

As far as their reason, each covenant established a distinct shared purpose or goal.

God made man for a purpose and these convenants remind and motivate man in this purpose. By God making such convenants, he also is cementing the nature of man's existence as being an interection with God and His will. These covenants provide the bounds, definitions and meaning of man's existence.

Daniel 9:4 ¶ And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made my confession, and said, O Lord, the great and dreadful God, keeping the covenant and mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his commandments;

A covenant is more than applying universal principles and benefiting from them. To them that love him and keep his commandments. God's covenant making with man, brings man into cooperation with God.

Details are Revealed Progressively

Do Not Forget It (Give Attention to It)

forget: to mislay, i.e. to be oblivious of, from want of memory or attention

The nature of a Covenant is that the parties must not "forget" it: Deut. 4:23; Deut. 4:31; 2Ki 17:38; Ps 44:17; Jer 50:5

1. God's Convenant with Adam and Eve (Genesis 2-4)

Genesis 2:15 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. 16 ¶ And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.

God blessed Adam and Even with the Garden of Eden and commanded them to dress and keep it. God also gave a restriction to not eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and even for if they do they would surely die.

a.Why Would God Place the Tree of the Knowledge of God and Evil in the Garden

1 Corinthians 10:13 — No temptation has overtaken you that is not common to man. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tempted beyond your ability, but with the temptation he will also provide the way of escape, that you may be able to endure it.

temptation: a putting to proof (by experiment (of good), experience (of evil), solicitation, discipline or provocation); by implication, adversity:--temptation, X try.

James 1:12 — Blessed is the man that endureth temptation: for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him. 13 ¶ Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man: 14 But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed.

  1. Temptation can PROVE what we are made up. highlight what is in us (good/bad) - An Effective temptation pulls at something that is in us.

  2. Temptation can PROVE our commitment. (Fairweather Fanatic)

Luke 22:31 — And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: 32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren. 33 And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death. Lu 22:34 And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.

  1. Tempation can BUILD our resilence.

Ro 5:3 And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also: knowing that tribulation worketh patience; 4 And patience, experience; and experience, hope: 5 And hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.

  1. Temptation reminds us to FULLY RELY ON GOD.

Mt 26:41 — Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.

Adam and Even, violate/break this covenant in the fall.

Genesis 3:15 — And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

Ps 51:5 — Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me.

Romans 5:12 — Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:

God's covenant with Adam and Eve established the nature of man's relationship to God concerning His will. God has a will and man's actions will be judged in light of that will.

2. God's Covenant with Noah and his Sons (Genesis 6 and 9)

In Genesis 6, v.13 The end of all flesh is come ... v.18 with thee [Noah] will I establish my convent

Genesis 6:18 — But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee.

Genesis 8:21,22 — And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. 22 While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.

This covenant included a promise of blessing, a command to be fruitful, mulitply and replenish the earth, restrictions concerning blood and taking a life, a promise to never destroy the earth again with a flood and an accompanying token — the rainbow. This covent was made not just with Noah but his children in perpetuity.

God's covenant with Noah established the partnership of God and man in the keeping and ruling of all of God's creation.

3. God's Covenant with Abraham (Genesis 12,15,17)


Genesis 17:2 — And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly.

Genesis 17:1-22

God Establishes this covenant as tokenized by circumcision (progressively revealed):

Through Moses leadership, God expands the details of the obligations of His covenant with Israel (upon the rules concerning blood and living things and upon the sign of circumcision) in Moral/Civil Laws, Health Laws and religious ceremonies and rituals which included the Tabernacle (with an "ark of the Covenant", 45x's mentioned) and the Levitical Priesthood.

Judges 2:1 — And an angel of the LORD came up from Gilgal to Bochim, and said, I made you to go up out of Egypt, and have brought you unto the land which I sware unto your fathers; and I said, I will never break my covenant with you.

2Sa 23:1 ¶ Now these be the last words of David. David the son of Jesse said, and the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel, said, 2 The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue. 3 The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. 4 And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain. 5 Although my house be not so with God; yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure: for this is all my salvation, and all my desire, although he make it not to grow.

Isa 24:5-7 The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting covenant. 6 Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men left. 7 The new wine mourneth, the vine languisheth, all the merryhearted do sigh.

**God's covenant with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and ultimately the Jewish people established an exclusive spiritual marriage (and that an eternal concept) where God would represent Himself as "their God" and they would represent themselves as "God's people". This is the first step in redeeming man after the fall in the garden.

1. Blessing/Benefits


What did the Relationship look like?

4. God's Covenant with David ()

God also makes a particular covenant with David. Israel eventaully are infected with a desire to be like other nations and be ruled by king instead of by God through his chosen prophets and judges. God gives them what they want as a judgment in giving them Saul as their king. Saul starts out good but his relationship with God corrups to the point, he dies as one that had never been anointed (2 Samuel 1:21). David is Saul's successor and not by accident, but is a particular part of God's plan of redemption and reconcilliation.

Acts 13:22 — And when he had removed him [Saul], he raised up unto them David to be their king; to whom also he gave testimony, and said, I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, which shall fulfil all my will.

Psalm 132:12 — If thy children will keep my covenant and my testimony that I shall teach them, their children shall also sit upon thy throne for evermore.

2 Smauel 23:4 — And he shall be as the light of the morning …

5. The New Covenant/Grace through Jesus

There is no covenant with cutting ... Blood.

Concerned with Falling Back? 'neo-judaizing'

Phillipians 3:1 ¶ Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things to you, to me indeed is not grievous, but for you it is safe. 2 Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision. 3 For we are the circumcision, which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh.

Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology

Framworks, maps, major systems:

Dispensationalism (alot of discontinuity, Israel and the Church stand apart) and Covenant Theolgy (maybe some continuity, Israel and the church 'sit on top of each other')



Unorganized Thoughts

No one saved bc they are jew alone. Being chosen doesn't mean salvation. But chosen for a purpose ... Demonstrate gods plan to the world.

*From his own loins"

No distinction between Jews and gentile in salvation

But prophecy of Jewish restoration? 2 different things spiritual restoration and national restoration -- nationalist Israel. A light. God has not abandoned Israel. all Israel will be saved characteristically identify Christ as messiah?

"Covenant Theolgy* denies distinction between national and spiritual Israel.

As frameworks not just ... -disoebsaruin -and covenants

Maps to orientate us when reading bible.

Formal agreement to redeem. "Covenant of Redemption" B4 foundation of the world. Plans, provides, accomplishes..... Agreement of God with God.

2 Tim 1:9; Titus 1:2; John 17 relationship B4 works began. ETERNAL PURPOSE.

Use the lens of new nt to understand ot

3 forms of Covenant Theolgy (frameworks)

  1. Presbyterian Covenant, only 2 covenants: works (gen1) and grace (gen 3:15) ... Adam fell and in 3:15 actually the "cutting of a new covenant". Noah,Abram,Moses ,David do not replace 2:15 but continue it the covenant of grace is same throughout ot. "Different administrations" or "dispensations" ... Israel then to the church in New Testament to all nations. ... Administered in OT as types and shadows 3:15 widened with Abram (circumcision), etc. More stipulations with Moses (temple worship), etc. (A different administration). .... In Jesus ( baptism added as stipulation, administration). "Differently administered" it still had salvation by Jesus and faith was produced by the administration particulars.
  1. Baptist Covenant 1689 Federalism, London Baptist 2ns Confession ... Reformed Baptist. John Owen and coxe.

Hebrews 7:12 new priesthood = new law -- "The Mosai Covenant is a Covenant of Works" "do and live, do not and die"

The whole law of Moses was inconsistent with Gospel. The whole Mosaic institution. He was cursed in keeping if not entire law. 2 different covenants and that whole thing (mosaic covenant) is abolished. ... Seen as opposing vs different administrations working together. The old is slavery and the new is for liberty.

Benjamin keech : the law of Moses was of same nature as given to Adam : a covenant of works. Moses is a second administration of the covenant of works.

Gen 3 is not a cutting of the new covenant but promised.

All of that old economy has been abkushed and a new cov taken it's place

Jer. 31:31-32; 2 Corinthians 3; Galatians 3,4; Ephesans 2:14,15; Hebrews 8-10 The Whole Law of Moses how it functioned in the Old Covenant has been abolished including in the 10 Commandments. Not one part of the Law of Moses functions as Old Covenant Law anymore. (Going back to Judaism.) -- Richard Barcellos 'neo-judaizing'

  1. New Covenant Theology

Primary Texts

Jeremiah 31:31-34 — Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: 32 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the LORD: 33 But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. 34 And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.

Heb 8:8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:

Matthew 5:17 — Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.

Hebrews 12:24 — And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.

Hebrews 8:12,13 — For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more. 13 In that he saith, A new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.

Old and New ("The Old is Better")

Lu 5:36-39 — And he spake also a parable unto them; No man putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old; if otherwise, then both the new maketh a rent, and the piece that was taken out of the new agreeth not with the old. 37 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles; else the new wine will burst the bottles, and be spilled, and the bottles shall perish. 38 But new wine must be put into new bottles; and both are preserved. 39 No man also having drunk old wine straightway desireth new: for he saith, The old is better.

The miraculous draught of fishes-the cleansing of the leper-the healing of the paralytic person-the calling of Levi-and the parable of the old and new bottles, and the old and new wine-all are related in this chapter.

ADAM CLARKE: The institutes of Christ, and those of the Pharisees, could never be brought to accord: an attempt to combine the two systems would be as absurd [as illustrated in cloth and wine].

Understanding the New through the Old

[ADAM CLARKE] Christian prudence requires that the weak, and newly converted, should be managed with care and tenderness. To impose such duties and mortifications as are not absolutely necessary to salvation, before God has properly prepared the heart by his grace for them, is a conduct as absurd and ruinous as putting a piece of raw, unscoured cloth on an old garment; it is, in a word, requiring the person to do the work of a man, while as yet he is but a little child.

What Does this Covenant Entail?

Hebrews 9

Heb 10:16 This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them;

Heb 10:29 Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?

Heb 12:24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.

Condensed Outline

Revision #15
Created 2 January 2023 13:23:47 by Stephen Reynolds Jr
Updated 5 February 2023 20:34:46 by Stephen Reynolds Jr